Wednesday, July 17, 2024

Ecosystem Assessment Concepts

Ecosystem Services

Ecosystem services are the benefits provided by ecosystems that contribute to making human life both possible and worth living. Examples of ecosystem services include products such as food and water, regulation of floods, soil erosion and disease outbreaks, and non-material benefits such as recreational and spiritual benefits in natural areas. The term ‘services’ is usually used to encompass the tangible and intangible benefits that humans obtain from ecosystems, which are sometimes separated into ‘goods’ and ‘services’.

Some ecosystem services involve the direct provision of material and non-material goods to people and depend on the presence of particular species of plants and animals, for example, food, timber, and medicines. Other ecosystem services arise directly or indirectly from the functioning of ecosystem processes. For example, the service of formation of soils and soil fertility that sustains crop and livestock production depends on the ecosystem processes of decomposition and nutrient cycling by soil micro-organisms.

Some scientists have advocated a stricter definition of ecosystem services as only the components of nature that are directly enjoyed, consumed, or used in order to maintain or enhance human well-being. Such an approach can be useful when it comes to ecosystem service accounting and economic valuation. This is because some ecosystem services (e.g. food provision) can be quantified in units that are easily comprehensible by policy makers and the general public. Other services, for example, those that support and regulate the production levels of crops and other harvested goods, are more difficult to quantify. If a definition based on accounting is applied too strictly there is a risk that ecosystem service assessment could be biased toward services that are easily quantifiable, but with inadequate consideration of the most critical ones for human well-being.

Since ecosystem services are defined in terms of their benefits to people it should be recognised that ecosystem services are context dependent, that is, the same feature of an ecosystem can be considered an ecosystem service by one group of people but not valued by another group. 


There are several different definitions and classifications of ecosystem services. Similar to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA), the UK NEA classifies services along functional lines into the categories of:


Provisioning services: The products obtained from ecosystems.

For example,

  • food
  • fibre
  • fresh water
  • genetic resources

Regulating services: The benefits obtained from the regulation of ecosystem processes.

For example,

  • climate regulation
  • hazard regulation
  • noise regulation
  • pollination
  • disease and pest regulation
  • regulation of water, air and soil quality

Supporting services: Ecosystem services that are necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services.

For example,

  • soil formation 
  • nutrient cycling
  • water cycling
  • primary production

Cultural services: The non-material benefits people obtain from ecosystems.

For example, through

  • spiritual or religious enrichment
  • cultural heritage
  • recreation and tourism
  • aesthetic experience




 スニーカー  腕時計

i just started a new website and i hope that you will come check it out for daily details and make sure if you are interested in spirits to check out we are hiring new escort agents on our website but we really need to get more of the girls over from las vegas backpage and also convert them from vegas escorts you can now or should be able to also see all the things that hurt you made you who you are body rub las vegas nevada and there never was any issue with anything that was happening Nude massage las vegas party other than how you perceived it and you were the source of all of your own sufferings las vegas call girls courtesans how does it feel to be completely free well i feel that it was a complete waste of time but there was nothing better to do so here we are call girls in las vegas nevada your reality is manifesting in accordance with your will and hopes and the further you go the further you realize the points and the ones you create in your mind are the best information we can get you to ufo disclosure proof To be entirely present in the moment, and to recognize that this is as it should be. And this, most of all: To recognize that the world is a place full of beauty. A place that is to be cherished and respected. This is the best way to perceive the world, I believe. It is both compassionate and joyful. defi marketing

Photo Credits (left to right): Banner: © Philip Brown; © Nathan Makan; © Rick Harrison; © Peter Mulligan; © Sean Munson; © Jim Moran; © Serena Epstein. Ecosystem services images: © Jim Moran; © Dachalan; © Max Westby; © Rick Harrison.

Privacy Statement  |  Terms Of Use |  Contact Us
Copyright 2009-2012 by UK National Ecosystem Assessment   Website:  |  Register  | Login