Mode:  



Tuesday, September 27, 2016
   
 

Ecosystem Assessment Concepts
Minimize


Ecosystem Services
Minimize

Ecosystem services are the benefits provided by ecosystems that contribute to making human life both possible and worth living. Examples of ecosystem services include products such as food and water, regulation of floods, soil erosion and disease outbreaks, and non-material benefits such as recreational and spiritual benefits in natural areas. The term ‘services’ is usually used to encompass the tangible and intangible benefits that humans obtain from ecosystems, which are sometimes separated into ‘goods’ and ‘services’.

Some ecosystem services involve the direct provision of material and non-material goods to people and depend on the presence of particular species of plants and animals, for example, food, timber, and medicines. Other ecosystem services arise directly or indirectly from the functioning of ecosystem processes. For example, the service of formation of soils and soil fertility that sustains crop and livestock production depends on the ecosystem processes of decomposition and nutrient cycling by soil micro-organisms.

Some scientists have advocated a stricter definition of ecosystem services as only the components of nature that are directly enjoyed, consumed, or used in order to maintain or enhance human well-being. Such an approach can be useful when it comes to ecosystem service accounting and economic valuation. This is because some ecosystem services (e.g. food provision) can be quantified in units that are easily comprehensible by policy makers and the general public. Other services, for example, those that support and regulate the production levels of crops and other harvested goods, are more difficult to quantify. If a definition based on accounting is applied too strictly there is a risk that ecosystem service assessment could be biased toward services that are easily quantifiable, but with inadequate consideration of the most critical ones for human well-being.

Since ecosystem services are defined in terms of their benefits to people it should be recognised that ecosystem services are context dependent, that is, the same feature of an ecosystem can be considered an ecosystem service by one group of people but not valued by another group. 
     

 
Minimize

There are several different definitions and classifications of ecosystem services. Similar to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA), the UK NEA classifies services along functional lines into the categories of:


 

Provisioning services: The products obtained from ecosystems.

For example,

  • food
  • fibre
  • fresh water
  • genetic resources

Regulating services: The benefits obtained from the regulation of ecosystem processes.

For example,

  • climate regulation
  • hazard regulation
  • noise regulation
  • pollination
  • disease and pest regulation
  • regulation of water, air and soil quality

Supporting services: Ecosystem services that are necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services.

For example,

  • soil formation 
  • nutrient cycling
  • water cycling
  • primary production

Cultural services: The non-material benefits people obtain from ecosystems.

For example, through

  • spiritual or religious enrichment
  • cultural heritage
  • recreation and tourism
  • aesthetic experience

 

 



 スニーカー  腕時計

Elite escorts washington I ma in love with the girl I met buy facebook likes to help your social media on facebook! You might want to try san diego escorts while you are staying out of town. They will not hurt your budget! las vegas escorts are the best type of escorts in the country! We are the top company for escorts in montreal so when you are feeling a bit frisky go a head and contact us to get your escorts in montrealmadrid escorts barcelona escorts marbella escorts malaga escorts kelowna paragliding lessons construction company san diego ca kitchen cabinets in vancouver In south florida you might be able to find escorts boca raton online and find some really amazing stripper miami

Photo Credits (left to right): Banner: © Philip Brown; © Nathan Makan; © Rick Harrison; © Peter Mulligan; © Sean Munson; © Jim Moran; © Serena Epstein. Ecosystem services images: © Jim Moran; © Dachalan; © Max Westby; © Rick Harrison.

Privacy Statement  |  Terms Of Use |  Contact Us
Copyright 2009-2012 by UK National Ecosystem Assessment   Website:  |  Register  | Login